ISSN 1822-8038 (online)

INTELLECTUAL ECONOMICS

2019, No. 13(1)

 

IMPLICATIONS OF EDUCATION WITHIN CSR AT THE EXAMPLE OF POLISH AND CROATIAN STUDENTS AT UNIVERSITIES OF ECONOMICS

 

Grażyna WOLSKA

University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Torun

 

Iwona BĄK

West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin

 

IvonaVrdoljak RAGUZ

Dubrovnik University, Croatia

 

Maciej OESTERREICH

West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin

 

DOI: 10.13165/IE-19-13-1-06

 

Abstract. Still three decades ago, the concept of CSR was no subject of interest for scientists in Poland and Croatia. However, today it has become the area of interest among academic circles, exceeding beyond businesscircles. Previously, the economies overwhelmed with neo-liberal ideology attached little importance to the issues promoted by CSR, e.g. environmental, ethical and social issues.Only the 2008+ crisis revealed the need to use the normative potential within the material infrastructure of CSR at all levels of business activity.Therefore, there was an opportunity to begin effective social dialogue.More and more universities (not only universities of economics) decided to include this issue in their study programmes. However, research surveys conducted by the authors of this article revealed that so far, in Poland and Croatia, the results are not completely satisfactory.The aim of this article is to evaluate the educational outcomes within CSR under research conducted among the Polish and Croatian students at universities of economics.

Objective:  The aim of this article is to evaluate the educational outcomes within CSR under research conducted among the Polish and Croatian students at universities of economics.

Research methods: The following research methods will be used in the article:descriptive method and selected methods of descriptive statistics (analysis of the structure and intercorrelations of variables).

Scope:  The scope of research covers students of economics in selected universities in Poland and Croatia in 2018.

Key-words:CSR, statistical analysis, survey research

JEL Classification:A13 B55 C13

 

 

Introduction

 

Nowadays, in the second decade of the 21st century, societies affected by the 2008+ crisis, which revealed the deficit of moral normative grounds in our times, more often reflect upon the traditional hierarchyof values and cultural system.The awareness regarding the loss of moral standards objective importancemade the discussions on CSR more expressive and more noticeable not only among theoreticians, but also practitioners(Garriga, Mele´ 2004; Corwther, Aras 2008, p. 41-51; Goel, Ramanathan 2014; Lampert 2016; Wolska 2017, p. 57), In this context, particularly in the last decade, more attention is paid to the young (Klein 2012).Since young people, regardless of their place of residence, to a larger and larger extent, through the increasing wave of social change and deluge of contradictory information, in particular from the Internet, frequently build their identity based on social media.Consequently, many of them fail to observe the entirety of economic events and accept variousinconsistent worldviews andinterpretation systems.It frequently involves struggle to remain in the mainstream of social change by any means (Peretz 2017). The trends generated the need to begin comprehensive education to indicate and convince the young that reliability and honesty of market entities bring trust which, in turn, translates into financial standing and wealth of society.There is no justification to present these issues to the young in too idealistic manner since young people, increasingly better educated, will immediately spot the hypocrisy. Therefore, it is not advisable to criticise business entities for their main goal to obtain highest profits since this is an integral part of their activity. Nevertheless, we shall make young people aware of the fact that it should not obscure the ethical limit beyond which economic management changes and exceeds a certain threshold, in particular moral standards.Moreover, the concern should not result from the fact that business entities focus on their own interest, and that they become involved and join business ventures which bring profits, but mainly from the fact that they are tempted tochange the responsibility towards other players on the market into the means to their own ends.It threatens not only the ethical standards, but also the economy as a whole.

 

The idea of CSR falls perfectly into the trend of student educational process aiming at building more ethical capitalism since it refers to the compulsory standards and social values, cultural considerations, social expectations, tradition, raising awareness and social sensitivity, living conditions and level of education (Anupam, Ravi 2013).Moreover, an important argument supporting thorough education within CSR involves the fact that in the future many students will form the elites deciding about the standing of economy and enterprises.All the more, at least from this perspective it is important that they are open to issues related to their obligations towards others.It decides not only the credibility of arrangements defining obligations, but also affects their durability (Freeman, Dmytriyev 2017).

 

Materials and method

 

In social sciences, the universal method applied to collect information is the survey research (Saris, Gallhofer 2007, p. 3). In order to conduct the survey, questionnaires are most frequently used and filled in by a smaller group of respondents selected from a larger group.Such survey is used to analyse the opinion of:voters, bank clients, entrepreneurs, students, newspaper readers, Internet users and many other smaller or larger groups (Szreder 2004, p. 9). The survey research has many advantages, including e.g. time and financial resource saving as well as respondent anonymity.The correct structure of questionnaire is very important, in particular correct and clear wording of the questions. The questionnaire should include the following elements:information on institution conducting the survey, information on the purpose of survey, instructions on how to answer the questions, questions, additional explanation (justification on the selection of particular respondent, word of thanks for filling in the survey, assurance on the confidentiality of collected information, etc.).

 

In order to assess intercorrelations between variables defining knowledge on the concept of corporate social responsibility of the Polish and Croatian students at universities of economics, thequestionnaire was developed with six evaluative questions and ten questions related to the analysed phenomenon.The metrics included social and demographic questionsrelated to the place of residence (country, city), gender, age, type of university, level and year of study.The second part of survey related to the concept of CSR and included questions on how students assess their knowledge on the analysed phenomenon and where they find information on the issue and how they assess the reliability of information.

 

The questionnairewas anonymousand was addressed to studentslearning at the universities in Poland and Croatia.The survey included 1421 individual questionnaires filled in by respondents from January to October 2018.The answers were obtained under their acceptance to participate in the survey.The obtained results were presented in a tabular and graphic form.

 

The correlation between variables regarding CSR awareness among respondents was also examined. For this purpose, contingency tables were built for selected variables (Kenny 1987, p. 127). The strength of the dependence was assessed using the V-Cramer coefficient, calculated on the basis of the following formula (Sobczyk 1995, p. 218, Gingrich 2004, p. 782):

(1)

where:

2 – statistics based on comparing the empirical and theoretical amount,

n – number of observations,

r – number of lines in table,

k – number of columns in table.

The coefficient takes the value from range [0, 1]. The correlation of analysed features is stronger, the closer V is to one.Numerous correlations were analysed to select those with the highest values of V-Cramer coefficient.

 

Analysis of research results

 

Among the respondents the dominant group included students from Poland, only every third student came from Croatia.Over 67% of respondents were women (tab.1). The majority of respondents (over 90%) were young peoplebelow 25 years of age.The percentage of survey participants of 40 years of age and more was marginal in both countries and totalled less than 2%.

 

Table 1. Characteristics of surveyed group by gender and country of origin

Country

Women

Men

Total

Croatia

293

125

418

Poland

670

333

1003

Total

963

458

1421

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

In the majority, the survey was conducted among students of Bachelor’s degree programme(fig.1). In the case of Croatia, the number totalled 88.28%, and in the case of Poland the number was lower – by ca.9 percentage points.Whereas, students of the second-cycle studies amounted to:11.48% in Poland and 19.84% in Croatia.The number of students of the third-cycle studies (doctoral studies) was marginal and totalled less than 1 percentage point.

 

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

Fig. 1. Respondents by the level of study

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

The thorough analysis of respondents of the first-cycle studies (Bachelor's degree programme) indicated that in the case of Croatia there were more third-year students (48.24% of respondents), ca. 8 percentage points, and less second-year students (fig.2). The first-year students constituted only 11.38% of all respondents.In the case of Poland the relation between the number of students in particular years was different.More than half of respondents were first-year students (55.47%).The second-year students constituted only 23.77% of respondents and third-year students 20.75%.

 

A screenshot of a cell phone

Description automatically generated

Fig. 2. Respondents by the year of Bachelor’s degree studies

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

In order to analyseintercorrelations between the knowledge on CSR among the respondents, and social and demographic variables,contingency tableswere developed (tab.2-9). The strength of intercorrelations was determined under V-Cramer coefficient.

 

The knowledge on the concept of socially responsible business (CSR) in the case of Croatia was confirmed by more than half of respondents (50.5%).In Poland, the number waslower by 10 percentage points.The concept of corporate social responsibility was unknown to as much as 38.38% of Polish students.In the case of Croatia the percentage was definitely lower and totalled 24.4%.Every fourth respondent from Croatia and every fifth from Poland had no opinion on that issue.The low value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates no intercorrelations between the respondents’ country of origin and their knowledge on CSR (tab. 2).

 

Table 2. Respondents’ country of origin and knowledge on CSR

Country

Have you ever heard of the concept ofcorporate social responsibility (CSR)?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

Difficult to say

%

Croatia

211

50,5

102

24,4

105

25,1

418

Poland

409

40,8

385

38,4

209

20,8

1003

Total

620

43,6

487

34,3

314

22,1

1421

V=0,1343

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

Among students up to 25 years of age, 42.99% heard ofthe concept of corporate social responsibility (tab.3). This number was as many as ca.11.5 percentage points lower among students aged 25 and more.Over 1/3 of respondents (34.63%) from the first age group and 28.4% from the second age group had no knowledge on the concept of CSR.The low value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates nointercorrelations between the age of respondents and their knowledge on CSR.

 

Table 3. Age of respondents and knowledge on the concept of CSR

Age

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

Difficult to say

%

upto 25

576

42,99

464

34,63

300

22,39

1340

over 26

44

54,32

23

28,40

14

17,28

81

Total

620

43,63

487

34,27

314

22,10

1421

V=0,0532

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

The analysis of answers provided by women and men on the knowledge of CSR concept indicates that answer „yes” was more frequently provided by men (tab.4). However, the difference in answers is not very significant and totals only ca. 6.8 percentage points.The answer „no” was provided by:36.3% of women and 29.9% of men.Over 1/5 of respondents from both groups had no opinion on this issue.The value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates nointercorrelations between the knowledge on CSR concept and gender of respondents.

 

Table 4. Gender of respondents and knowledge on CSR concept

Country

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

Difficult to say

%

Women

399

41,4

350

36,3

214

22,2

963

Men

221

48,3

137

29,9

100

21,8

458

Total

620

43,6

487

34,3

314

22,1

1421

V=0,0706

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

Interesting information comes from answers to the question on the knowledge on CSR depending on the level of study (tab.5). It turns out that almost 40% of respondents of first-cycle studies could identify the concept.The students of second-cycle studies have definitely more knowledge on this issue; over 61% heard of the concept, whereas24.5% of respondents had no knowledge on the issue. The evaluation of V-Cramer coefficient (0.1658) indicates there are little intercorrelations between the level of study and the knowledge on CSR concept.

 

Table 5. Respondents’ level of studies and knowledge on CSR concept

Level of studies

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

Difficult to say

%

Bachelor’s degree studies

463

39,8

424

36,4

277

23,8

1164

Master’s degree and higher

157

61,1

63

24,5

37

14,4

257

Total

620

43,6

487

34,3

314

22,1

1421

V=0,1658

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

The highest number as for theknowledge on CSRrefers to final year students of the first-cycle studies (tab.6). As much as 61.5% of them heard of the concept, and only 19.5% of respondents had no knowledge thereof.Virtually equal number of second-year students selected answers „yes” and „no”, amounting to 35.8% and 35.2% respectively. Among the first-year students, every second respondent indicated they had no knowledge on the CSR concept.The evaluation of V-Cramer coefficient (0.1811) indicates there is little intercorrelation between the level of study and the knowledge on CSR concept.

 

Table 6. Respondents’ year of studies and knowledge on CSR concept

Year of Bachelor’s degree studies

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

Difficult to say

%

I

131

27,1

238

49,3

114

23,6

483

II

121

35,8

119

35,2

98

29,0

338

III

211

61,5

67

19,5

65

19,0

343

Total

463

39,8

424

36,4

277

23,8

1164

V=0,1811

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

Another question referred to whetherenterprises should inform about the fact that they conduct activities related to socially responsible business.The answers provided by students indicate that 61.6% of respondents who hear of the CSR concept and 51.5% of those who had no knowledge on this concept replied that enterprises should inform about their activities related to socially responsible business.Opposite opinion was presented by 11.6% of respondents from the first group and 7.4% from the other.Low value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates nointercorrelations between the analysed variables.

 

Table 7. Knowledge on CSR concept and public information on activities related to socially responsible business

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)? 

Should enterprises running activities related to socially responsible business inform the public of such activities widely and intensively?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

don’t know/difficult to say

%

Yes

382

61,6

72

11,6

166

26,8

620

No

251

51,5

36

7,4

200

41,1

487

Difficult to say

165

52,5

17

5,4

132

42,0

314

Total

798

56,2

125

8,8

498

35,0

1421

V=0,0777

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

The majority of respondents (86.1%) indicated that there was a place for ethics in business (tab.8). Opposite opinion was presented by 9.9% of them, including 8.4% of respondents whodeclared they knew the concept of corporate social responsibility.Very low value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates nointercorrelations between the knowledge on CSR concept and the approach to ethics in business.Similar approach is represented by both Croatian and Polish students (tab.9). The total of 86.1% of respondents replied in the affirmative, i.e. 85.6% respondents from Croatia and similar percentage of respondents from Poland (only by 0.6 percentage points more).The value of V-Cramer coefficient indicates there is littleintercorrelation between the analysed variables.

 

Table 8. Knowledge on CSR concept and approach to ethics in business

Have you ever heard of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR)? 

In your opinion is there a place for ethics in business?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

don’t know/difficult to say

%

Yes

551

88,9

52

8,4

17

2,7

620

No

406

83,4

57

11,7

24

4,9

487

Difficult to say

266

84,7

32

10,2

16

5,1

314

Total

1223

86,1

141

9,9

57

4,0

1421

V=0,0375

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

Table 9. Respondents’ country of origin and approach to ethics in business

Country

In your opinion is there a place for ethics in business?

Total

Yes

%

No

%

don’t know/difficult to say

%

Croatia

358

85,6

57

13,6

3

0,7

418

Poland

865

86,2

84

8,4

54

5,4

1003

Total

1223

86,1

141

9,9

57

4,0

1421

V=0,1307

Source:own elaboration based on questionnaires.

 

The obtainedresearch results prove that despitestudy programmes related to the concept of corporate social responsibility implemented in numerous universities of economics in Poland and Croatia, there is insufficient knowledge on the assumptions and meaning of the idea of corporate social responsibility, which is demonstrated by low value of V-Cramer coefficient (0.134). The strongest intercorrelations regarding the knowledge on CSR were observed for all students, with the following variables:year of Bachelor’s degree studies (0.181) and level of studies (0.166).

 

Educational implcations regarding csr in poland and croatia andin other seclected countries

 

As previously stated, in the second decade of the 21st century, CSR became the subject of significant scientific research.A substantial number of analyses and reports were presented, defining the modes of implementing the assumptions of CSR in enterprises.Significant academic achievements greatly contributed the theoretical part regarding this field of knowledge.However, these achievements fail to translate into success in the educational area within CSR.Therefore, the authors of this study decided to analyse the degree of progress in CSR education within the universities of economics in Poland and Croatia and presentthe results of research provided by other scientists.

 

The review of reference literature performed by the authors proved that the curricula at the universities of economics comprise more and more subjects directly or indirectly related to corporate social responsibility.However, it fails to translate into satisfactory learning outcomes.It is confirmed by numerous scientists analysing these issues.For instance,Christensen et al. (2007) presented in their work the results of research related to the curricula of economic studies (MBA) in 50 best universities of economics in the world, as reported in„The Financial Times” of 2006.The scientists verified whether within these subjects students are provided with knowledge on ethics in business, CSR and sustainable business.It turned out that the majority of universities (49 surveyed universities) offer in their curricula subjects dedicated to ethics in business.However, only 19 out of 50 universities offer subjects directly or indirectly related to the issues of corporate social responsibility.The study by Srinivasan et al. (2012) also presentsthe resultants on the state of education regarding ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development in Indian universities of economics.The questionnaire was conducted at universities which between 2009 and 2011 ranked within 50 best universitiesas per periodicals such as:Business India, Business World, Business Today Outlook India.In total, 107 universities were analysed.The analyses prove that curricula at 89% of analysed universities provided subjects related to ethics in business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development.However, only 10.28% of universities offered courses dedicated solely to CSR.Summarizing the results of own research, the authors also emphasized that apart from changes in the content of subjects, there is also a need to change how the subjects related to ethics in business, CSR and sustainable development are taught by applying modern multimedia technologiesdemanding greater involvement ofstudents.Whereas, the collective work edited byTurker, Vural and Idowu (2016) presents thorough comparison of curricula and teaching methods related to corporate social responsibility implemented in Turkey, Germany, the Netherlands, Latvia, Poland, Italy, Greece, Spain and Portugal.The analyses conducted by researchers in particular countries prove thatthe curricula at the universitiesof economics include elements related to CSR.The only exception is Turkey, where under information collected from websites on university curricula (179 universities), as many as 116 lack any elements related to the knowledge on CSR.Further, the authors prove that e.g. in Spain and Portugal there are no central, national teaching programmes related to corporate social responsibility.Researchers emphasize that the top-down imperativewould oblige to introduce these programmes in all universities in a given country.It should be noted that surveys conducted in various countries failed to provide unambiguous results regarding the impact of curricula on student perception of issues related to CSR.For example, research conducted in Hungaryreveal high impact of education related to CSR on students’ social awareness, whereas, in Germany and Italythe impact is much lower.

 

Other researchers:Elobeid et al. (2016) surveyed 150 students and 68 employees ofthe College of Business and Economics Qassim University.The questions asked referred to their opinion on teaching related to CSR,and 78.4% of employees and 82.1% of students explicitly declared that teaching in this respect was important and should be included in the curriculum of economics.As many as 67.6% of employees and 79.3% of students stated that the basics on CSR should be included in the curricula already in secondary schools.At the same time, both groups declared that education related to CSR at universities should begin at Bachelor's degree studies.The authors of this study emphasise that universities of economics through their programmes on CSR should educate responsible managers with a wide range of management skills and high level of technical competence.Therefore, universities should promote the idea of CSR, among both students and staff.Since it exerts significant impact on the proper development of state and economy.

 

Whereas, Tokarčíková et al. (2015) indicate the need to extend curricula in Slovakia by subjects related to CSR not only for students of economics, but also for students of other fields of study.They also suggest providing elements of CSR in the curricula for Information Technology students. They refer to examples of internal and external international cooperation within CSR and its popularization in Slovakia.Whereas, A. Barman (2011) emphasizes the significant role of teachers in spreading knowledge and preparing students to become socially aware individuals.Barman provides four main tasks of teachers (in particular at the faculty of management), directly related to corporate social responsibility:

  • implementing the culture ofeconomical use of natural resources for personal satisfaction;
  • developing socially responsible practices (COP);
  • sharing ideas and knowledge via social blogs and community of practitioners;
  • establishing fora or joining fora promoting information on „responsible” management.

The author constates that from among all institutions related to education, the most important role refers to universities since they educate thefuture elites of a given country.The author strongly emphasises that the concepts and ideas passed by universities can guarantee wealth of a given society or can lead to its decline.

 

In literature, we can more frequently find not only reference to the content of university curricula within the promotion of corporate social responsibility concept, but also demands for changing the function of universities as institutions.In the collective work edited by D.T.L Shek and R.M.Hollster, the authors provide theoretical classification of the concept ofuniversity social responsibility (USR).They present the concepts of Global University Social Responsibility Network (GUSRN) providing the exchange of experience related to the implementation of USR.They also indicate examples of activities related to USR at universities from different parts of the world.Moreover, Vasilescu et al. (2010) in their study, suggest modes of transfer from corporate social university to university social responsibility.They present SpituHaretUniversity as a model example.The authors emphasize that the evolution of traditional model of education towards the modern onewas imposed by the process initiated by the Bologna declaration signed in 1999.They concurrently prove thatthe changes will have a positive impact on the university students, providing them with greater awareness necessary in the modern world.Whereas, P. Hill (2004) at the example of University of South Florida in St. Petersburg proves how difficult it is to implement curriculum related to CSR at the university.The author presents subsequent stages from primary concept to the implementation stage. Moreover, the author emphasises that activities related to the implementation of CSR by such institutions are long-term activities, strategically important for the university and its environment.

 

The cognitive activities taken by the authors of this study also aimed at improving the theory and application of existing knowledge on CSR and analysing intercorrelations between the promotion of CSR and the level of knowledgeon CSR among the Polish and Croatian students at the universities of economics.It turned out that the obtained resultants indicated similar implications as these presented above.In order to explain the obtained results, the following general conclusions can be derived[1]:

  • less than half of students surveyed in Poland and Croatia heard of the concept of CSR (43.6%)[2];
  • CSR concept is familiar to a larger number of respondents of more than 26 years of age – 54.32%, whereas among respondents up to 25 years of age – it is familiar to 42.99%;
  • the highest number as for knowledge on CSR at Bachelor’s degree studies refers to final year students – 61.5% (such answer was provided by 35.8% of second-year students and 27.1% of first-year students.)
  • at Master’s degree and higher level of studies the concept of CSR is familiar to 61.1% of the surveyed respondents[3].

 

In conclusion, the evaluation conducted by the authors of this study led to very similar results, as for both the Polish students compared to the Croatian students, and the Polish and Croatian students compared to students from other above mentioned countries.It proves that despite increasingly commonimplementation of subjects related to CSR in the educational programmes at the universities of economics, the universities fail to provide good results in this respect.

 

Conclusions and recommendations

 

Since the state of education regarding CSR is unsatisfactory, as indicated at numerous universities, including these analysed in Poland and Croatia, we need to find reasons for such situation and reach further beyond aspects resulting from the entire set of issues called economism.For we need to include also reasons resulting from technological, political, social, lifestyle and cultural transformations which shaped the new form of capitalism called turbocapitalism (Luttwak 2000) which, in turn, according to G. Szulczewski (2013, p.16) developed the ideologyof amoralism leading tomoral permissivism.Turbocapitalism promoting, first of all,market efficiency (the most important goal in this ideology is to obtain economic profit), eliminated control and respect for any social and economic principles.It directly translated into education, the shortcomings of which will be difficult to overcomein a short time.Therefore, according to the authors the reconstruction in transferring knowledge on the concept of CSR should begin, first of all, with convincing young people (it is also emphasized by S. Young) that ethical business includes the need to generate profit as well as develop the capital of relations, namely the combination between enterprises and their social environment.One factor stimulates the other; therefore, the opinion providing that a resourceful manager and an honest manager are synonymous concepts becomes well-grounded (Young 2005, p. 43-55).

 

In the educational process we should also emphasize, to a greater extent, the issue of environmental protection as the basic element of the concept of CSR (Meliton 2009; Zafar 2013; Patil 2014).These issues should be developed and, apart from standard leitmotifs related to enterprises, should emphasize more strongly the following issues:

  • Closed-loop economy, i.e. the economy where once acquired or manufactured materials circulate, and are not wasted as in the case of linear economy.Introduction of circular economy in todays’ much polluted environment is the most important element of fighting global warming, water pollution (oceans, lakes, rivers) and degradation of natural environment.
  • Observation of not only the closest environment, but also the whole world, namely purchased raw materials, from the perspective of individual business entities within the public and private sector, but also regions and countries.
  • Awareness of the fact that traditionally calculated costs of economic undertakings are not the only costs, and that we should includecosts incurred by the natural environment, and that these costs must be limited and internalised by the economy.

Despite all the existing issues and dilemmas related to natural environment, we can clearly observe the evolution in raising ecological standards.This progress results from actions taken at various levels:transnationaland national institutions, business organizations of particular enterprises, non-governmental and pro-consumer organizations (Lewicka-Strzałecka 2006, p. 32-33). However, as presented by recent events[4], young people notice shortcomings in these activities and demandmore definitive actions and actions related to high quality of education (without unnecessary ethos).

 

Apart from the above mentioned issues, in the educational process equally important are issues related to legal environment, labour market, civil society, ethical standards, including mainly the ethical self-regulation of business.This is another area referring to the concept of CSR, which should be presented to students taking into account the existing environmental trends andresponding to the contemporary challenges.Today, frequently presented approach to those issuesis instrumental in character, i.e. refers to technology and management and is focused only on problem-solving.Followingthe reasoning by A. Pałubicka (2013, p. 95-105) we can state that such approach can be defined asblindly accepted cultural modelcalled „sustainable development”.A. Pałubicka emphasises further that the previous or still existing mind-set on the area of management should cease to be treated as obvious and unalterable.Members of modern management-oriented society realize, to a greater extent, that macro-economic as well as global social and economic problems (increase in earnings inequality, deepening gap between the rich north and deteriorating south, exploitation of employees, social exclusion, marginalisation, deterioration of natural environment, etc.)should no longer be perceived as external costs of the market resulting from particular „objective” (trans-cultural) economic mechanisms.In the existing cultural context, these costs can no longer be perceived as necessary sacrificeused as a promise ofbetter future in the form of available-for-all results of quick economic growth.Therefore, in the concept of CSR this social and economic area should be presented solely instrumentally (as a tool).It should be focused as the previous concepts (ethical aspect, natural environment) on subject- and realty-based approach taking into account the historical and local variables.

 

In summary, contemporary events from economic practice as well as economics as science indicate that referring to elements of CSR in economics is becoming more and more popular.However, having observed the trends, the question arises as to whether this is a steady trend in economicsleading to stable verification of still triumphant paradigms characteristic of mainstream economics, or a short-term trend which will relegatethese issues to the margins of economics.Probably no one is able to answer this question unambiguously.However, numerous theoreticians and practitioners more often emphasize that CSR is an idea which significantly contributes to the stability, continuity and predictability of economic processes.However, it must rely on the following grounds:theory, education and practice (Hamidu et al. 2015).With education treated as a bridge linking theory with practice.Since through education, the intellectual infrastructure of CSR can be transferred from the reflection on economy into practical aspects, because, as previously specified the students as future politicians and mangers will or will not implement this idea in real economy.

 

References

 

  1. Anupam S., Ravi K. (2013) Corporate Social Responsibility: Driving Forces and Challenges, International Journal of Business Research and Development, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 18-27
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[1]Multfaceted presentation of questions and answers in the questionnaire can be found in part of this study entitled „Materials and Method”.

[2]Details on correlation between the respondents’ country of origin and knowledge on CSR concept are presented in tab. 1.

[3]Details on correlation between the knowledge on CSR concept as per year and level of study are presented in tab. 5 and 6.

[4]Demonstrations organized to draw the attention of politicians to environmental problems in various countries in order to improve the situation klimatunaZiem, initiated by Greta Thunberg from Sweden. 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.13165/IE-19-13-1-06

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