Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

César Teixeira, Michele Albano, Arne Skou, Lara Pérez Dueñas, Francesco Antonacci, Rodrigo Ferreira, Keld Lotzfeldt Pedersen, Sandra Scalari


Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates) to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.

Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries) showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.

Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.

Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.

Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European Energy Policy is missing. Moreover, this paper highlights how European countries are converging on a common view, and provides some details on the differences between the countries, thus facilitating parties interesting into cross-country export of experience and technology for energy management.


Energy management; energy market; energy certificates; smart meters

Full Text:



K. Capoor, P. Ambrosi. "State and trends of the carbon market 2007." World Bank, Washington, DC (2007). Available online at:

K. Gugler, M. Rammerstorfer, S. Schmitt. "Ownership unbundling and investment in electricity markets—A cross country study." Energy Economics 40 (2013): 702-713.

D. Fouquet. "Policy instruments for renewable energy–From a European perspective." Renewable Energy 49 (2013): 15-18.

W. Gans, A. Alberini, A. Longo. "Smart meter devices and the effect of feedback on residential electricity consumption: Evidence from a natural experiment in Northern Ireland." Energy Economics 36 (2013): 729-743.

L. Vandezande, et al. "Well-functioning balancing markets: A prerequisite for wind power integration." Energy Policy 38.7 (2010): 3146-3154.

Communication from the Commission to the European Council and the European Parliament - an energy policy for Europe. (2007) Available online at:

M. Kanellakis, G. Martinopoulos, and T. Zachariadis. "European energy policy—A review." Energy Policy 62 (2013): 1020-1030.

Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC. Available online at:

European Commission. "EU Third Energy Package", proposed in September 2007, adopted in July 2009, available online at:

C.C. Tsao, J. E. Campbell, Y. Chen. "When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy." Energy Policy 39.7 (2011): 3966-3974.

European Commission. "Energy prices and costs in Europe." Brussels, March 17th, 2014. Available online at:

Spanish Energy Regulator’s annual report to the European commission, CNE, July 2011

"Monitoring Benchmark Report 2011", Bundesnetzagentur für Elektrizität, Gas, Telekommunikation, Post und Eisenbahnen Monitoring, Marktbeobachtung – Energie, 2011

F. Genoese, M. Genoese, M. Wietschel. "Occurrence of negative prices on the German spot market for electricity and their influence on balancing power markets." Energy Market (EEM), 2010 7th International Conference on the European. IEEE, 2010.

T. Traber, C. Kemfert. "Gone with the wind?—Electricity market prices and incentives to invest in thermal power plants under increasing wind energy supply." Energy Economics 33.2 (2011): 249-256.

Commission de Régulation de l’Énergie (CRE). "Rapport transmis a la DG ENER." July 2011, France. Available online at:

Sustainable Real Estate Roundtable. "International Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates." (2012) Available online at:

B.V. Mathiesen, H. Lund, K. Karlsson. "100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth." Applied Energy 88.2 (2011): 488-501.

N. Magnani, A. Vaona. "Regional spillover effects of renewable energy generation in Italy." Energy Policy (2013).

"The Portuguese Electricity System." Available online at: /SistElectNacional.aspx

M. da Silva. "Smart Grids em Portugal- Plano de Negócio para Serviço de Planeamento e Gestão Remota de Consumos Eléctricos." M.Eng. thesis, July 2011. Available online at:

F. Amorim, et al. "How much room for a competitive electricity generation market in Portugal?." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 18 (2013): 103-118.

Electric Ireland report. "Micro-generation Scheme." Available online at:

Epex Spot - European Power Exchange. "Price Coupling of Regions." Available online at:

M. Albano, et al. “The ENCOURAGE ICT architecture for heterogeneous smart grids”, IEEE Eurocon Conference (Eurocon 2013), 1-4 July, 2013


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

"Social Technologies" ISSN online 2029-7564