Child-Parent Relationships and Positive Youth Development Components

Goda Kaniušonytė, Oksana Malinauskienė, Inga Truskauskaitė-Kunevičienė

Abstract


Positive youth development (PYD) is a strengths-based model that recognizes importance of an individual’s and his or her environment’s connectivity and how those relationships shape human development (Benson and Saito, 2000; Benson, 2003; Lerner 2005; Fredricks and Eccles, 2008; Chand et al., 2013). The literature has distinguished five positive youth development components (called Five C’s) stimulating positive results. Those components are competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner 2005, Lerner et al., 2005; Roth and Brooks-Gunn, 2003). Along with the great importance of individual characteristics of the adolescent, the positive youth developmental model emphasizes the particular importance of family context and parent-child relationships (Lerner et al., 2005; Chand et al., 2013). Family and parenting factors that are important for positive adolescent outcomes include low levels of parent-adolescent conflict (McElhaney et al., 2009), parental warmth (Nash et al., 2005; Napolitano et al., 2011), positive communication (Hillaker et al., 2008) and parental monitoring (Kerr and Statt, 2000; Kerr et al., 2010; Napolitano et al., 2011). In view of the PYD research context, family context is given very little attention (Chand et al., 2013). Most of the available data has been received from the studies in the United States, while the data in European, especially in Eastern European, countries is very scarce.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between family context and positive youth development components (the Five C’s).
The data used is from an ongoing longitudinal Positive Youth Development study, which is funded by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. Student participants were drawn from five high schools in the administrative region of Utena, Lithuania (9-12 grades). 1787 students participated in the first assessment (47.4% were boys and 52.6% were girls, aged 14-22 years (M=16.62, SD=1.24)), which took place in spring, 2013. For this current study, only the participants who completely filled the PYD and children-parents relationship questionnaires (N=1727) were included.
The results in the Lithuanian sample revealed similar tendencies as in the United States, European and some other countires. The results showed that parental monitoring, trust, emotional warmth, absence of alienation and communication with parents are strongly positively related with all five positive youth development components (the Five C’s), whereas psychological control and rejection are negatively related with the Five C’s.

Keywords


Positive Youth Development; parental rearing style; parent attachment; parent psychological control; parental monitoring; communication with parents

Full Text:

PDF (Lithuanian)

References


Aluja A.; del Barrio V.; García L. Personality, social values, and marital satisfaction as predictors of parents' rearing styles.International Journal Of Clinical Health & Psychology. 2007, 7(3): 725-737.

Amato P. Father-Child Relations, Mother-Child Relations, and Offspring Psychological Well-Beingin EarlyAdulthood. Journal Of Marriage & Family. 1994, 56(4):1031-1042.

Antaramian, S. P., Huebner, E. S. and Valois, R. F., Adolescent Life Satisfaction. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 2008, 57: 112–126.

Barber B. K. Parental Psychological Control: Revisiting a Neglected Construct. Child Developmet, 1996, 67: 3296-3319.

Barnow S.; Schuckit, M.A; Lucht, M.; John, U.; Freyberger, H.J. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis. Journal of studies on alcohol. 2002, 63(3): 305-315.

Bean R. A.; Barber B.K.; Crane D. R. Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control among African American Youth. Journal of Family Issues. 2006, 27(10): 1335-1355.

Benson, P. L. Developmental Assets and Asset-Building Community: Conceptual and Empirical Foundations In. Lerner, R. M., Benson, P. L. Editor(s). Developmental Assetsand Asset-Building Communities: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2003, p. 19-43.

Benson, P. L., Saito, R. N. The scientific foundations of youth development. In: Youth development: Issues, challenges, and directions. Philadelphia: Public/ Private Ventures. 2000, p. 125–147.

Bowers, E. P., Li, Y., Kiely, M. K., Brittian, A., Lerner, J. V., & Lerner, R. M.. The Five Cs model of positive youth development: A longitudinal analysis of confirmatory factor structure and measurement invariance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2010, 39: 720-735.

Bowers E. P.; Gestsdottir S.; Geldhof G. J.; Nikitin J.; von Eye A.; Lerner R. M. Developmental trajectories of intentional self regulation in adolescence: The role of parenting and implications for positive and problematic outcomes among diverse youth. Journal of Adolescence. 2011, 34 (6), p. 1193-1206.

Chand N.; Farruggia, S; Dittman, C; Wai, J., Sanders C.; Sanders, M. Promoting positive youth development.Youth Studies Australia. 2013, 32(1):. 29-36.

Corsano, P.; Majorano, M.; Champretavy, L.; Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: The Contribution of Interpersonal Relations and Experience of Being Alone.Adolescence. 2006, 41(162): 341-353.

Fredricks J.; Eccles J., Participation in extracurricular activities in the middle school years: are the redevelopmental benefits for African American and European American youth? Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2008, 37:1029–1043.

Furnham, A.; Cheng, H. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2000, 35(10) : 463-470.

Hillaker, B. D.; Brophy-Herb, H. E.; Villarruel, F. A. & Haas, B. E. The Contributions of Parenting to Social Competencies and Positive Values in Middle School Youth: Positive Family Communication, Maintaining Standards, and Supportive Family Relationships. Family Relations.2008, 57(5): 591-601.

Kerr, M.; Stattin, H. What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: Further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology. 2000,36(3):366-380.

Kerr, M.; Stattin, H.;, Burk, W. J. A Reinterpretation of Parental Monitoring in Longitudinal Perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2010, 20(1): 39–64.

Laible D. Attachment with parents and peers in late adolescence: Links with emotional competence and social behavior. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007, 43 (5): 1185-1197.

Lerner, R.M.; Dowling, E.M.; Anderson, P.M. Positive youth development: Thrivingas a basis of personhood and civil society. Applied Developmental Science. 2003, 7: 172-180.

Lerner, R. M. Promoting Positive Youth Development: Theoretical and Empirical Bases. White paper prepared for the Workshop on the Science of Adolescent Health and Development, National Research Council/Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academies of Science. 2005.

Lerner, R. M.; Lerner, J. V.; Almerigi, J.; Theokas, C.; Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S. ;Naudeau, S.; Jelicic, H.; Alberts, A. E.; Ma, L.; Smith, L. M.; Bobek, D. L.; Richman-Raphael, D.; Simpson, I.; Christiansen, E. D.; von Eye, A. Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fif th grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Journal of Early Adolescence. 2005, 25(1): 17-71.

Lerner R. M.; Lerner J. V.; Benson J. B. Positive youth development: Research and applications for promoting thriving in adolescence. In: Lerner R. M., Lerner J. V., Benson J. B., Editor(s). Advances in Child Development and Behavior. JAI, 2011, 41: 1-17.

Lippman L. H.; Moore K. A.; McIntosh H. Positive Indicators of Child Well-Being: A Conceptual Framework, Measures, and Methodological Issues. Applied Research in Quality of Life. 2011, 6 (4): 425-449.

Ma C. Q. ; Huebner E. S. Attachment relationships and adolescents' life satisfaction: Some relationships matter more to girls than boys. Psychology in the Schools. 2008, 45(2): 177-190.

McElhaney K. B.; Allen J. P.; Stephenson J. C.; Hare A. L. Attachment and Autonomy During Adolescence. In Lerner R. M.; Steinberg L. Editor(s). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology 3rded. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009,.1: 358-403.

Morton, Katie L. , Barling, Julian , Rhodes, Ryan E. , Mâsse, Louise C. , Zumbo, Bruno D. and Beauchamp, Mark R. Extending transformational leadership theory to parenting and adolescent health behaviours: an integrative and theoretical review. Health Psychology Review. 2010, 4 (2): 128 — 157.

Napolitano, C. M.; Bowers, E. P.; Gestsdottir, S.; Depping, M.; vonEye, A.; Chase, P.; Lerner, J. V. The role of Parenting and Goal Selection in Positive Youth Development: A Person-Centered Approach.Journal of Adolescence. 2011, 34(6): 1137-1149.

Phelps, E., Zimmerman, S. , Warren, A. E. A., Jeličič, H., von Eye, A., & Lerner, R. M.. The structure and developmental course of Positive Youth Development (PYD) in early adolescence: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2009, 30 (5): 571-584.

Roth, J.L.; Brooks-Gunn, J. Youth Development Programs: Risk, Prevention and Policy. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003, 32: 170-182.

Silk, J. S.; Morris, A. S.; Kanaya, T. T.; Steinberg, L. L. Psychological Control and Autonomy Granting: Opposite Ends of a Continuum or Distinct Constructs? Journal Of Research On Adolescence. 2003, 13(1):113-128.

Suldo, S. M.; Huebner, E.S. The Role of Life Satisfaction in the Relationship between Authoritative Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Problem Behavior. Social Indicators Research. 2004, 66 (1-2):165-195.

Ward, P. J.; Zabriskie, R. B. Positive youth development within a family leisure context: Youth perspectives of family outcomes. New Directions For Youth Development. 2011, 130: 29-42.

Witt, P. A. Youth Development: Going to the Next Level. Parks & Recreation. 2002, 37(3): 52-59.

Whitbeck L. B.; Hoyt D. R.; Simons R. L.; Conger R. D.; Elder G. H. Jr.; Lorenz F. O.; Huck S. Intergenerational Continuity of Parental Rejection and Depressed Affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1992. 63(6):1036-1045.

Yang, A.; Wang, D.; Li, T.; Teng, F.; Ren, Z. The Impact of Adult Attachment and Parental Rearing on Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Late Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal. 2008 36(10): 1365-1378.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13165/SD-14-13-1-09

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




"Social Work" ISSN online 2029-2775 / ISSN print 1648-4789