Peculiarities of Psychosocial Factors and Psychosocial Adjustment in Relation to Sociodemografic Factors Among Elderly People

Loreta Gustainienė, Vilija Banevičienė


The increase of the elderly population involves all levels of social reality, and it changes life habits not only of an individual, but of relationships among people, as well. Different research studies show that obsolescence is directly affected by social aspects (family, education, style of life). The increase of a number of the elderly makes this group of people more influential in a community.
The purpose of this work is to evaluate optimism, satisfaction with life, social support and psychosocial adjustment in sociodemographic groups in a sample of elderly people.
148 people (95 women, 53 men) aged 55-81 living in Ukmerge (Lithuania) and its region took part in the research. In order to evaluate psychosociological adjustment, a questionnaire was created and five factors of psychosociological adjustment were distinguished, such as the following: social activity, communication with relatives, attitude towards the youth, attitude towards the elderly and health. Social support was assessed by The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Servery (Sherbourne and Stewart, 1991). Optimism was assessed by Life Oriettion test-Revised (Scheier and Carver, 1985). Life satisfaction was assessed using Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985).
The results of the research showed that optimism of the elderly was related to their marital status, whereas social support was related to marital status, education and place of residence (urban or rural). Optimism, satisfaction with life, social support, psychosociological adjustment were also related to employment. Marital status and education were related to psychosociological adaptation of the respondents. The study adds to the knowledge of psychosocial adjustment among the elderly and calls for further research in this area.


optimism; satisfaction with life; social support; psychosocial adaptation; the elderly

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