ISSUES OF INTEGRATION OF SKILLS FAVOURABLE TO HEALTH IN PERSONS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

Vida Gudžinskienė, Indrė Čergelytė

Abstract


Diabetes mellitus is not only a medical, but also a public issue. The number of people with diabetes is increasing every year. Diabetes causes complications of diseases. In addition to infertility issues and foot injuries that worsen the health condition, patients develop diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases (strokes, ischemic heart diseases, peripheral vascular diseases). Accordingly, training courses for patients and focus on the health of the patients themselves are very important. The object of the research is training of persons with diabetes mellitus and skills favourable to health that help to prevent complications. The aim of the article is to reveal the process of learning of patients with diabetes and the application of skills favourable to health, which help to prevent complications in life. Tasks: 1) determine what kind of training courses are organized in Lithuania for persons with diabetes mellitus; 2) determine what kind of knowledge about health and disease control is provided by medical personnel; 3) reveal what kind of knowledge about health and what skills patients adapt in everyday life. Methods of research: theoretical – analysis of scientific literature, generalization; empirical – questionnaire survey, data analysis was performed by using the SPSS 23.0 program. The t-test was used to compare averages between groups, significant difference was considered to be p < 0,05. Data analysis was performed by applying calculations of non-parametric and parametric criteria. There were 61 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged from 13 to 78 years, who participated in the research.
The research sought to reveal what training courses are organized for persons with diabetes mellitus and how patients themselves preserve their health. During the research, participants were questioned about the training courses they have attended; how patients with diabetes mellitus control their disease; and whether they follow the principles of a healthy lifestyle.
Empirical research revealed that there are short-term training courses for patients with diabetes mellitus organized in Lithuania. The majority of participants noted that trainings are carried out for several hours or 7 days. Training courses that are carried out for patients with diabetes cover topics of a healthy lifestyles: balanced diet, physical activity, personal hygiene, blood sugar monitoring and insulin use; however, participants emphasize that such trainings should include more health aspects and that they prefer to have regular training courses. The research revealed that most training courses for patients with diabetes mellitus are carried out by a nurse, an endocrinologist and a dietician. Medical staff provides patients with diabetes with basic knowledge about health that includes a healthy lifestyle, foot care and recommendations for treatment (monitoring of blood suga,insulin use). It has been determined that patients with diabetes mellitus partially adapt the received knowledge. The research revealed that only 23.8 percent of participants with diabetes keep to a healthy diet plan, only 14.3 percent are physically active, and 39.7 percent care for their feet. Participants of the research lack knowledge about a healthy lifestyle and skills favourable to health that help to prevent complications. Only a small number of participants of the research with diabetes mellitus behave consciously and are prone to preserve their health by following recommendations of doctors. Therefore, patients with diabetes in Lithuania need regular and continuous training programs that would cover aspects of a healthy lifestyle (healthy and balanced diet, promotion of physical activity, personal hygiene). It is recommended to develop training programs that would include active training methods and videos, which would help patients with diabetes mellitus to more easily and independently acquire necessary health skills.

Keywords


diabetes mellitus , integration issues, favourable health skills, learning process, favourable health skills, training.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13165/SD-18-16-1-08

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"Social Work" ISSN online 2029-2775 / ISSN print 1648-4789