THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMERGING ADULT‘S PERCEIVED COWORKER‘S SUPPORT, PERCEIVED SUPERVISOR‘S SUPPORT, SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, AND THEIR TURNOVER INTENTIONS

Dovilė Zakarauskaitė, Rasa Pilkauskaitė Valickienė

Abstract



The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between Perceived Coworker’s Support, Perceived Organizational (Supervisor) Support, and Turnover Intention. An additional task was to identify the interaction of Socio-demographic Factors with the Turnover Intention. These associations were investigated in the emerging adult’s sample (period of learning and experimentation prior to career and stable relationships (Sussman, Arnett, 2014). Thus, the study sample consisted of individuals aged 18 – 30 (442 women and 61 men). The study was conducted in several stages. At first, a dialysis interview was conducted in which 2 individuals in the emerging adulthood age were interviewed. The only criteria for these subjects were their age and condition for being employed. After finding the subjects in a convenient way, they were asked in a semi-structured interview about their work experience, what was important to them at work and other similar questions like sociodemographic questions about age, sex etc. This interview helped clarify the direction of the research and the variables examined (perceived support from coworkers, perceived support from the supervisor and turnover intention). This interview also helped to determine what methodologies will be used in the study, namely, “Turnover Intention” (Camman et al., 1979), “Perceived Coworker Support” (Bemiller, Williams, 2011), and “Perceived Organizational Support” (Eisenberger et al., 1986) scales. After evaluating the results of the dialysis interviews, scales were selected through an online survey, along with socio-demographic questions and presented to 15 subjects who were conveniently picked.
The data obtained were analyzed. It was decided to use the same scales as in the pilot study, as the results were satisfactory, the main study was finally launched. This was also done through an online survey but this time 503 subjects were interviewed. When enough finished questionnaires were collected during the day, it was decided to evaluate results. Calculations were done using statistical program SPSS 23.0 (2015).
The “Turnover intention scale” (Camman et al., 1979) consisted of 3 statements as “I often think about quitting”. The subjects rated the statements on a Likert scale (from 1 – strongly disagree to 7 – strongly agree). A higher score on this scale indicates a stronger intention to quit. Cronbach alpha was measured (α = .764). Agreement to use this questionnaire was get from PsyTest database. Second scale used was the “Coworker Support scale“(Bemiller, Williams, 2011). This consists of 5 statements that had to be rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Cronbach alpha showed high score (α = .855). None of the questions were reversed. This questionnaire is available to use for not commercial purpose. The third scale is the “Perceived Organizational Support scale” (Eisenberger et al., 1986). This scale was adjusted to purpose of this research. Word “organizational” was changed to “supervisor” support for purpose of concretization. This questionnaire consists of 8 statements to be rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Cronbach alpha also showed high rates (α = .844). After pilot survey with 15 young employee, it was decided not to delete any question from this scale. Higher scores in this scale shows higher organizational (supervisor) support. Four questions were reversed. And finally, socio-demographic questionnaire used after analyzing scientific articles of other scientists.
The first hypothesis that socio-demographic factors are significantly related to the construct of turnover intention was partially confirmed. It was discovered that the turnover intention is associated with a general seniority, promotion. Consequently, those with a higher seniority have a lower turnover intention. Also promoted individuals have a lower turnover intention. However, the links with the intention to retire are not determined by age, education, gender, length of service in the current company they are employed in, the number of jobs in which the individual has worked. These interfaces were studied using Pearson and Spearman. The second hypothesis that there is a significant correlation between perceived supervisor support, perceived support from coworkers and turnover intention was confirmed. There is also a significant relationship between perceived support from coworkers and perceived support from the supervisor with the turnover intention. These interfaces were studied by Pearson. The third hypothesis, which states that perceived support from coworkers, perceived support from a supervisor is important in predicting turnover intention, has been partially supported. Indeed, perceived supervisor support is strongly related to the turnover intention, meaning that employees receiving less support from the supervisor are more likely to change jobs.
The study was conducted to analyze how socio-demographic factors, perceived supervisor support and perceived coworker support is related to turnover intention. The results showed that overall length at working (fewer people with more seniority are considering quitting the job), promotion (less promoted employees are less likely to retire), and turnover intention is correlated. Perceived supervisor support and perceived coworker support is significantly correlated with the turnover intention so the greater the perceived managerial and coworker support, the lower is his or her turnover intention. Evaluating the importance of perceived supervisor support, perceived coworker support along with socio-demographic factors, in predicting turnover intention, it was discovered that only supervisor support predicts turnover intention. Consequently, the greater is the supervisor support, the lower is employee’s turnover intention. In that case we should consider the importance of this kind of support to an employee. Also, the turnover intention is significantly predicted by overall seniority. If someone at work has a bigger overall, seniority we could consider him as someone who think less about quitting, no matter in what kind of work he is. Thus, the stereotype that young employee is volatile and frequently change jobs has been partially refuted. All calculations show that age is not directly related to frequent job rotation, but the support given to the young employee by the supervisor contributes significantly. Emerging adults (young employee) may have different approach to work, sometimes they, in somebody’s opinion, might decide to leave working environment too early. Although other point of view may be that they might be open minded and in need of support at work. And they might not just be young and undecided employee.

Keywords


perceived support from co-workers, perceived support from the supervisor, intention to leave work, young adults.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13165/SD-20-18-1-07

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"Social Work" ISSN online 2029-2775 / ISSN print 1648-4789