The relationships between perceived parental rearing styles and gender identity in late adolescence

Oksana Malinauskienė, Rimantas Vosylis, Rasa Erentaitė, Rita Žukauskienė


This study focuses on parental rearing practices as predictors of gender identity among late adolescents. A convenience sample of Lithuanian adolescents, aged 16 to 18, (N = 1298, 785 girls and 513 boys) was used in the study. The participants filled-in a questionnaire, which consisted of three dimensions of gender identity, proposed by Egan and Perry (2001)—gender typicality, gender contentedness and felt pressure, and the Lithuanian version of the EMBU (Arrindell et al.; 1994 Arrindell, 1999), which measured mothers' and fathers; parenting styles. Gender contentedness and felt pressure were found to be higher for boys than for girls. Sixteen-year-olds felt more pressure to conform to gender norms than eighteen-year-olds. The results indicated that parental emotional warmth correlated with adolescents‘ gender contentedness, whereas rejection and overprotection – with felt pressure. Both parents‘ rejection and mothers‘ overprotection were related to lower gender typicality. In addition, felt pressure for boys was positively related to mother‘s overprotection, and felt pressure for girls was positively related to higher father‘s overprotection and mother‘s rejection.


gender identity; parenting styles; adolescence

Full Text:

PDF (Lietuvių)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

"Social Work" ISSN online 2029-2775 / ISSN print 1648-4789