STUDY OF THE CONTAMINATION OF THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA WITH UNEXPLODED EXPLOSIVES

Sarunas Babicius, Nikolaj Dobrzinskij, Rasa Dobrzinskiene

Abstract


These days, contamination of the territory of Lithuania with explosives is still a relevant issue, because even though it has been more than 70 years since the war is over, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company of the Juozas Vitkus Engineer Battalion often has to collect and neutralize the explosives remaining from war. The article discusses the larger battles of the First and Second World War and the Wars of Independence, and the locations of former Russian military bases as possible causes of explosive contamination in the territory of Lithuania. The dynamics of emergency calls and explosives found in the period between 2007 and 2017 was also reviewed, confirming the relevance of the problem. Maps of the contamination of the territory of Lithuania, battles that took place and places of former Russian military bases have been prepared. They prove that the First and Second World War and the Wars of Independence as well as the locations of Russian troops’ deployment are indeed the main causes of explosive contamination of the territory of Lithuania. The article also presents and discusses the influence of climate on explosives being raised to the surface of the ground. What is more, a weak relationship between the number of calls to deminers, and an average relationship between the depth of ground freezing and the index of construction work performed are established

Keywords


explosives; territory; contamination; threat

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almond, R. J. (2005). Projectile Attack of Surface Scattered Munitions Comparing Closed Form Theory with Live Trials. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 30(3).

Buller, M. F. Romanko, T. V. Mezhevich G. V., Robotko V. A. (2014). Eкологічні ризики тривалого зберігання піроксилінових порохів. Вісник КрНУ імені Михайла Остроградського. Випуск 4/2014 (87).

Craig, W. E. (2012). Army National Guard Training Center: Regulation Ammunition Procedures and Logistics. Annville, Pennsylvania.

Dicken, P. (2007). Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy. London: Sage.

Kardelis, K. (2016). Mokslinių tyrimų metodologija ir metodai. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos centras.

Licht, H. H. (2000). Performance and Sensitivity of Explosives. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 25.

Pirmasis pasaulinis karas, https://www.vle.lt/Straipsnis/Pirmasis-pasaulinis-karas-5007.

Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War to the Convention of 1980 of the United Nations on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (Protocol V), 2004.

Surgailis, G. (2005). Rusijos kariuomenės išvedimas 1990–1993. Vilnius: Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija.

Ammunition Handbook: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Munitions Handlers (2001). United States Department of the Army, Washington.

Field manual. Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Procedures (2006). United States Department of the Army, Washington.

Handbook on the Management of Ordnance and Explosives at Closed, Transferring and Transferred Ranges and Other Sites (2002). United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Wilkinson, A. (2001). Stockpile Management: Surveillance and Proof. In Conventional Ammunition in Surplus.

Zecevic, B., Zecevic, N.,Terzic, J., Miroslav, S. (2015). Researching Influence of Climatic Environmental Parameters on Performance of Large Caliber Ammunition during Storage. ICOEST International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Sarajevo.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.13165/PSPO-19-23-01

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.